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EUROPEAN SKI AREAS: WEB RESOURCES LISTED BY EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Pubblicato Martedì, 27 Ottobre 2015 21:16
Scritto da Administrator

WORKSHOP "SAFETY AND LIABILITY RULES IN EUROPEAN SKI AREAS"

 

We encourage the website's visitors to contact the Administrator of this website if they want to signal other web links of interest concerning the countries listed above or missing in the above list.   


 

GERMANY (credits: Hannes Meyle)

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: Overview

No legal basis for the police to act preventatively or as ski patrol

In general, the Community (Gemeinde) is responsible for security issues with regard to ski areas.

No national public institution which is exclusively competent for safety issues in ski areas.

 

Public/private institutions 

Bayerisches Kuratorium für alpine Sicherheit (Bavarian Curatorship for Alpine Security): 

Curatorship which unites most important national stakeholders (alpine clubs, insurance companies) and competent Bavarian ministries - Founded in 2012 to centralise research concerning accident analysis, security and accident prevention in Germany

Bergwachten (Mountain rescue services) 

Part of the German Red Cross Organisation; different organisation for each German Federal State 

Publish statistics of their operations, see particularly the Bavarian Mountain Rescue Service

 

Private institutions 

Stiftung Sicherheit im Skisport, SIS (Foundation Security in Ski Sports)

Founded by different ski sports associations (DSV aktiv/Freunde des Skisports e. V., Deutscher Skiverband e. V.)

Tasks: Education and research concerning prevention and security measures (behaviour, equipment)

Accident analysis in cooperation with ARAG sports insurance

Recent outcome: Increase of collision accidents, see page 9 of analysis 2013/2014 

Deutscher Alpenverein, DAV (German Alpine Club)

World's largest climbing association and the eighth largest sports union in Germany.

Analysis and statistics concerning accidents of association members 2012/2013: See page 65 for accidents in ski resorts 

DSV aktiv/Freunde des Skisports e.V. (Ski Sports Association)

Different insurance offers especially for ski sports

Education: DSV safety days 

Label „Geprüftes Skigebiet“ (Approved Ski Area) for ski areas that are considered safe

Arbeitsgemeinschaft und Stiftung Sicherheit im Sport (Foundation and Working Group Security in Sports)

Founded in September 2015, situated at Ruhr University Bochum, contribution of different universities, research and security institutes as well as insurance companies 

Task: Reduction of sport accidents in general

Technischer überwachungsverein Süd, TüV Süd (Technical Inspection Association), and others; competent for security inspection of ski lifts.

Deutsches Institut für Normung, DIN (German Institute for Standardization): establishes primarily industrial norms but there are also DIN norms for warning/information signs in ski areas.

 

National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

No central association of Ski Area Operators; rather organized in regional tourism associations

Verband Deutscher Seilbahnen und Schlepplifte, VDS (Association of German Cable Cars and Drag Lifts)

 

Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Bavarian parliament answers to questions concerning accident numbers and safety measures in Bavarian ski resorts (25.04.2014) as well as legal questions with regard to an eventual obligation to wear a ski helmet 


 

SWITZERLAND (credits: Hannes Meyle)

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: No legal basis for the police to act as ski patrol

 

Public institutions

Schweizerische Kommission für Unfallverhütung auf Schneesportabfahrten, SKUS (Swiss Commission for Accident Prevention on Ski Pists)

Public foundation; establishes guidelines concerning security and the competence of rescue services

  1. Publications concerning behaviour and statistics

Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, bfu (Information Center for Accident Prevention):

Public Task: Accident information and prevention with regard to professional and non-professional activities

For accident statistics concerning winter sports see page 44

 

Private institutions

Schweizerische Unfallversicherung, SUVA (Swiss Accident Insurance Company)

Largest Swiss accident insurance company

  1. accident statistics according to the Swiss Accident Insurance Law

 

National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

No central or national firm or ski area operator associations

Seilbahnen Schweiz (Cable Cars Switzerland)

Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Media Communications by SUVA on accident statistics, for example concerning relation and numbers of ski accidents vs. football accidents in 2013

Prevention campaign by SUV

 


 

AUSTRIA (credits: Andrea Schwaighofer)

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas

Authorities: Overview

No legal basis for the police to act preventatively or as ski patrol

In general, the Community (Gemeinde) is responsible for security issues with regard to ski areas.

No national public institution which is exclusively competent for safety issues in ski areas.

 

Public/private institutions 

Österreichisches Kuratorium für alpine Sicherheit (Austrian Curatorship for Alpine Security) 

Dedicated to the field of avalanche prevention and rescue as well as alpine accident research

Organizer of several workshops and conferences

  1. Bergrettung (Mountain rescue services)

Provides valuable tips for skiers and tourers

 

Private institutions

Österreichischer Alpenverein (Austrian Alpine Club) - different organisation for each Austrian Federal State expert advice and training of proven experts

Österreichische Berg-und Schiführer (Austrian alpine guides) - Up-to-date reports, safety tips

Code of behaviour in event of avalanches, correct safety equipment

 

National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

No central association of Ski Area Operators; rather organized in regional tourism associations

Fachverband Die Seilbahnen Österreichs, angesiedelt bei der Wirtschaftskammer, WKO (cable cars of Ausrtia, located by the chamber of commerce)  

 

Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

bsR Forschungsstelle für Bergsportrecht (research center for law concerning mountain sports) 

Development and Improvement of Austrian and international legal standards

The aim is to reduce accident damages concerning mountain activities

 


POLAND (credits: Dominik Wolski)

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

$1   Authorities

       Minister of the Interior (general responsibility for ensuring safety conditions in the mountains, ski areas including, supervision on police and mountain rescue services, issuing regulations on technical and safety conditions in the organized ski areas

       Police (in charge to conduct controls in the organized ski areas in respect to alcohol sobriety and/or safety behaviour of skiers and snowboarders (i.a. disrespect of safety conditions in the organizes ski area)

       Supreme Audit Office (in charge to conduct audits in terms of observance of safety conditions in the organized ski areas)

$1     

      Public/private institutions:

      Mountain Voluntary Rescue Service (Górskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe) – provides mountain rescue services i.a. in the organized ski areas (except Tatra Mountains)

         Tatra Voluntary Rescue Service (Tatrzańskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe) – provides mountain rescue services i.a. in the organized ski areas located in Tatra Mountains

$      

      Private institutions:

      Polish Ski Association – Polish official ski association responsible for professional skiing and snowboarding, training of ski and snowboard staff (in particular ski and snowboard sport trainers) and promotion of safety rules in professional and non-professional winter sports   

      Association of Ski instructors and Trainers – training of ski staff (instructors, trainers), promotion of safety behavior in the organized ski areas (i.a. FIS rules)

      Association of Snowboard Instructors and Trainers – training of snowboard staff (instructors, trainers), promotion of safety behavior in organized ski areas (i.a. FIS rules)                                 

  

      National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators:

      In Poland there is no central association of ski area operators

      Polish Ski and Touristic Stations (Polskie Stacje Narciarskie i Turystyczne) – the association gathers main and the biggest ski area operators in Poland, it organizes annual conferences on the issues related to ski areas concerning i.a. economic dimension, legal frames, technical issues, insurances, liability, etc., materials from conferences accessible on its website 

N

National conference "Legal Aspects of Safety in Mountain: Tourism, Sport, Recreation" (in Polish) 


ITALY (credits: Umberto Izzo)

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:
 
Authorities: Overview


As regards the public and private subjects in charge of supervising the behaviors of skiers within a ski area, art. 21 of the Law 363/2003 provides:


Art. 21. (Subjects responsible for sanctions)
1. Subject to the regional laws already in force in the regions, the State Police, the State Forestry Corps, the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza Corps, as well as the local police, in carrying out the service supervision and rescue in ski resorts, shall monitor compliance with the provisions of this Act and impose the corresponding sanctions against those who infringe them.
2. Complaints relating to the violation of the provisions of Article 9, paragraph 1, are issued, normally, upon reports made by ski instructors.


According to this provision, which states that the supervision over the ski behaviors of ski areas and the power of issuing sanctions is a matter of public officers, no legal responsabilities have been found on a SAO who failed to block and to issue sanctions against a skier who was dangerously skiing and ended up colliding with a skier who resulted severily injured.

Additionally, at the regional level, only a 2002 regional law of Friuli Venezia Giulia provides for the professional role “pattugliatore” or “patroller”, who is defined by the law as “the individual who, acting under the supervision of SAOs, is in charge of carry on activities in the field of prevention and safety, by patrolling ski areas, taking care of SA signals, marking the borders according to the characteristics of the slopes and the snow conditions, controlling the conditions of the slopes, giving assistance in case of accidents, and taking care of any activities that could convey information to skiers concerning the behaviors on the slopes and the danger of the mountains”.

 
Public/private institutions 
Article 5 of the Law 363/2003 envisaged financial support for setting up policies for accident prevention, but after the first financial expenditure this provision was not financed again every year:

Art. 5 
(Information and dissemination of precautions aimed at the prevention of accidents)
1. For the financing of campaigns, on an annual basis, to promote safety in the exercise of winter sports, is allocated the sum of € 500,000 per annum, with effect from the 2003. Information campaigns are defined and prepared, after hearing the Permanent Conference for the relations between the state, the regions and the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano and the national sports federation responsible for winter sports recognized by the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI), the Minister for Regional Affairs, in agreement with the Minister of Health. The campaigns provide the more extensive information to those who practice winter sports, also providing the dissemination of knowledge of the classifications of the slopes, of the signs and the rules of conduct laid down by this law.
2. Within the limit of 20 percent of the resources allocated by subsection 1, the Minister for Education, University and Research agrees with the national sports federation responsible for winter sports recognized by the Olympic Committee to set up initiatives aimed at disseminating the knowledge of classifications of the slopes, the signs and the rules of conduct referred to in paragraph 1, also by entering into appropriate agreements and providing information campaigns to be carried out in schools, to be carried out during normal school hours.


The public institutions in charge of controlling the safety of SAs are mainly the regions or the autonomous provinces, while the central government play no role in this respect. Private institutions in charge of the safety of SAs are the private operators who run the SAs.   


At the statistical level, an important role for collecting and processing the information concerning the number e types of accident occurring every year in the Italian SAs is played by the Centro di addestramento alpino della Polizia di Stato di Moena, although this institution does not publish official reports every year (no web site of this institution appears to be available).


From 2003 to 2007 the SIMON system was administered to this extent by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità of Rome, but the last official report was issued in 2007 and since then no official data on ski accidents are reported at the national level in Italy.

 
 
National public or private entities representing the Ski Area Operators 
 
At the national and regional level ANEF (Associazione Nazionale degli Esercenti Funiviari - corresponding to the National Association of Ski Area Operators) is the private organization representing the industry, which gathers all the single private enterprise that run the business of ski areas in Italy. The ANEF of the Lombardia region worked, together with the regional government, to a model contract (whose text is also available in English) to provide to consumer skiers the services that these latter need to use safely a ski area (called: "Standard agreement for the use of skiable areas in the Lombardy Region"). Another website of an ANEF local association is that of the Autonomous Province of Bozen.


Other websites of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

www.dirittodeglisportdelturismo.it

http://www.fondazionemontagnasicura.org/en/

http://www.fondazionecourmayeur.it/homepage.asp?l=1

http://www.sicurezzainmontagna.net/

http://www.cai-svi.it/

http://accademiamontagna.tn.it/


FRANCE (credits: Christophe Quézel-ambrunaz)

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

 

Authorities: Overview

 

Public institutions 

 

Private institutions

 

Academic resources

 

Master de Droit de la montagne

L'Accident en Montagne (video) - Demi-journée d’échanges entre juristes et professionnels de la montagne - Chambéry - 30 juin 2015 - Manifestation organisée par le Laboratoire CDPPOC de la Faculté de Droit de Chambéry a l'occasion de la publication de l'ouvrage "L'accident en montagne: étude juridique"

 


 

SPAIN (credits: ALBERT RUDA)

 

 

National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: Overview

Guardia Civil (Civil Guard)

Public security body charged with police duties. One of its branches is devoted to rescue and intervention in the mountains and other places of difficult access. Since 1981 it comprises the former ‘Skiers Unit’. Currently skiers are organized in the so-called ‘Grupos de Rescate Especial de Intervención en Montaña’ (Special Rescue Groups of Intervention in the Mountains [GREIM]). One of the missions of this branch is to guarantee public security in ski areas.

Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports)

The Ministry sets the conditions under which the professional card of ski instructor can be obtained and carries out the tests accordingly. 

 

Public/private institutions 

Cruz Roja (Red Cross) 

Humanitarian movement, part of the International Red Cross Organization. It provides help in case of accidents or emergencies.

 

Private institutions 

Real Federación Española Deportes de Invierno (Royal Spanish Federation of Winter Sports)

Private federation which assembles the regional federations related to winter sports and many stakeholders in this sphere. The RFEDI chooses which sportsmen will represent Spain in international competitions, and represents Spain before the International Ski Federation, among other things.

Asociación Española Ski-Man (Spanish Aeskiman Society)

This society is devoted to the promotion and protection of the so-called ski-man profession.

Asociación de Escuelas, Profesores y Entrenadores de Deportes de Invierno (Society of Schoold, Teachers and Trainers of Winter Sports)

It is basically devoted to the protection of the profession and prevention of professional intrusion, as well as guaranteeing teaching quality.

Escuela Española de Esquí & Snowof Sierra Nevada(Spanish School of Ski and Snowboard)

An example of a ski school located in Sierra Nevada, one of the most important ski resorts in Spain.

Reial Automòbil Club de Catalunya (Royal Car Club of Catalonia)

One of the most important private insurers in the region of Catalonia. It provides examples of available insurance cover. Other insurers providing such cover are Mapfre, FIATC Seguros, Europ Assistance, Axa, Intermundial, etc. Eroski, a popular publication aimed at consumers, provides an overview of ski accidents insurance.

 

National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

Asociación Turística de Estaciones de Esquí y Montaña (Tourist Society of Ski and Mountain Resorts [ATUDEM])

It brings together 31 ski and mountain stations or resorts in Spain. Such society has asked the Spanish Government to pass a regulatory framework on safety in winter sports and the rational use of sky areas.

 

Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Some information of accidents skiing or in the mountain can be found online. There is for instance information about accidents in Sierra Nevada in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013a.

Some education on sports in the mountain is provided by the Escuela Española de Alta Montaña (Spanish School of the High Mountain [EEAM]). This school is depending on the Federación Española de Deportes de Alta Montaña y Escalada (Spanish Federation of High Mountain and Alpinism Sports [FEDME]), which issues the so-called ‘federative licence’ (an identification card which also includes insurance cover).

Some statistical information on the intervention of the security forces in cases of accidents in the mountain can easily be found in the Wikipedia. There seems to be a lack of official, comprehensive statistics.

 

 

 


Belgium and the Netherlands (credits: PIETER DE TAVERNIER) 

 

Federations

https://www.nskiv.org/ : Dutch Ski Federation

http://snowboard.nl/ : Dutch Ski Federation/Snowboard

http://www.sneeuwsportvlaanderen.be/cm/partners/partners-overheid-officiele-instanties/128-koninklijke-belgische-ski-federatie: Koninklijke Belgische Ski Federatie (Royal Belgian Ski Federation: see also http://new.ski.be/

http://www.sneeuwsportvlaanderen.be/cm/index.php : Ski- and Snowboardfederation Flanders

http://www.fski.be/ : Fédération Francophone Belge de Ski (French speaking Ski Federation Belgium)

 

See also the websites of the Belgian and Dutch Alpine clubs:

http://www.nkbv.nl/

http://www.klimenbergsportfederatie.be/kbf/ledeninfo/verzekering

 

 

Ski Resorts in the Netherlands and Belgium (indoor):

 

http://www.wintersporters.be/wiki/skihal: Indoor Skiing in the Netherlands

 

Example: http://www.snowworld.com/nl

 

http://www.snowboardreisbureau.nl/snowboarden/snowboarden-in-nederland/: Snowboarding in the Netherlands

 

http://www.goudengids.be/skipistes-skischolen/

 

 

Ski-Instructors in the Netherlands and Belgium

 

http://www.skiing.nl/tips/skileraar.html : Dutch Snow Sports Academy 

http://www.sneeuwsport-instructeurs.be/skileraar: Belgian Federation of Snowsport Instructors

 

Example: https://www.wintersport.nl/blog/opleiding/skileraar-a/

 

 

Insurances:

 

http://www.nkbv.nl/verzekering?gclid=CP-8r_f6zskCFUJmGwod1ugOPw : Royal Dutch Climbing Federation (NKBV)

https://www.wintersport.nl/reisverzekering/?gclid=CJi6gvf4zskCFUKfGwodb-wPTQ : Dutch Ski Federation/Traval Insurance (see also the Annual Report of the Dutch Ski Federation: https://www.nskiv.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2015/12/jaarverslag-NSkiV-2014-2015.pdf)

https://www.nskiv.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2015/12/jaarverslag-NSkiV-2014-2015.pdf (Information about snow sports via Skifederation Flanders)

 

Examples:

 

Alpine Clubs:  http://www.klimenbergsportfederatie.be/kbf/ledeninfo/verzekering

http://www.aginsurance.be/Retail/nl/gezondheid/hospitalisatieverzekering/Paginas/extreme-sporten.aspx?WT.ac=tips-hp-extreme-sport-12-2015-nl : AG Insurance

http://blog.allianz-global-assistance.be/pech-op-reis/1219/wintersport-reisverzekering-ski-ongeval/ : Allianz Global Assistance.

 

 

Information about Safety, Equipment, … in Winter Sport Magazines:

 

https://www.wintersport.nl/blog/2012/10/04/het-vernieuwde-wintersport-magazine/ : Wintersport Magazine

http://www.nkbv.nl/magazine: Wintersport Magazine edited by the Royal Dutch Climbing Federation.

http://www.klimenbergsportfederatie.be/nieuws/klim-en-bergsport-magazine-online : Magazine edited by the Belgian Climbing and Mountaineering Association (KBF).