We encourage the website's visitors to contact the Administrator of this website if they want to signal other web links of interest concerning the countries listed above or missing in the above list.   


GERMANY (credits: Hannes Meyle)


National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: Overview

No legal basis for the police to act preventatively or as ski patrol

In general, the Community (Gemeinde) is responsible for security issues with regard to ski areas.

No national public institution which is exclusively competent for safety issues in ski areas.


Public/private institutions 

Bayerisches Kuratorium für alpine Sicherheit (Bavarian Curatorship for Alpine Security): 

Curatorship which unites most important national stakeholders (alpine clubs, insurance companies) and competent Bavarian ministries - Founded in 2012 to centralise research concerning accident analysis, security and accident prevention in Germany

Bergwachten (Mountain rescue services) 

Part of the German Red Cross Organisation; different organisation for each German Federal State 

Publish statistics of their operations, see particularly the Bavarian Mountain Rescue Service


Private institutions 

Stiftung Sicherheit im Skisport, SIS (Foundation Security in Ski Sports)

Founded by different ski sports associations (DSV aktiv/Freunde des Skisports e. V., Deutscher Skiverband e. V.)

Tasks: Education and research concerning prevention and security measures (behaviour, equipment)

Accident analysis in cooperation with ARAG sports insurance

Recent outcome: Increase of collision accidents, see page 9 of analysis 2013/2014 

Deutscher Alpenverein, DAV (German Alpine Club)

World's largest climbing association and the eighth largest sports union in Germany.

Analysis and statistics concerning accidents of association members 2012/2013: See page 65 for accidents in ski resorts 

DSV aktiv/Freunde des Skisports e.V. (Ski Sports Association)

Different insurance offers especially for ski sports

Education: DSV safety days 

Label „Geprüftes Skigebiet“ (Approved Ski Area) for ski areas that are considered safe

Arbeitsgemeinschaft und Stiftung Sicherheit im Sport (Foundation and Working Group Security in Sports)

Founded in September 2015, situated at Ruhr University Bochum, contribution of different universities, research and security institutes as well as insurance companies 

Task: Reduction of sport accidents in general

Technischer überwachungsverein Süd, TüV Süd (Technical Inspection Association), and others; competent for security inspection of ski lifts.

Deutsches Institut für Normung, DIN (German Institute for Standardization): establishes primarily industrial norms but there are also DIN norms for warning/information signs in ski areas.


National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

No central association of Ski Area Operators; rather organized in regional tourism associations

Verband Deutscher Seilbahnen und Schlepplifte, VDS (Association of German Cable Cars and Drag Lifts)


Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Bavarian parliament answers to questions concerning accident numbers and safety measures in Bavarian ski resorts (25.04.2014) as well as legal questions with regard to an eventual obligation to wear a ski helmet 


SWITZERLAND (credits: Hannes Meyle)


National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: No legal basis for the police to act as ski patrol


Public institutions

Schweizerische Kommission für Unfallverhütung auf Schneesportabfahrten, SKUS (Swiss Commission for Accident Prevention on Ski Pists)

Public foundation; establishes guidelines concerning security and the competence of rescue services

  1. Publications concerning behaviour and statistics

Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung, bfu (Information Center for Accident Prevention):

Public Task: Accident information and prevention with regard to professional and non-professional activities

For accident statistics concerning winter sports see page 44


Private institutions

Schweizerische Unfallversicherung, SUVA (Swiss Accident Insurance Company)

Largest Swiss accident insurance company

  1. accident statistics according to the Swiss Accident Insurance Law


National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

No central or national firm or ski area operator associations

Seilbahnen Schweiz (Cable Cars Switzerland)

Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Media Communications by SUVA on accident statistics, for example concerning relation and numbers of ski accidents vs. football accidents in 2013

Prevention campaign by SUV



AUSTRIA (credits: Andrea Schwaighofer)


National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas

Authorities: Overview

No legal basis for the police to act preventatively or as ski patrol

In general, the Community (Gemeinde) is responsible for security issues with regard to ski areas.

No national public institution which is exclusively competent for safety issues in ski areas.


Public/private institutions 

Österreichisches Kuratorium für alpine Sicherheit (Austrian Curatorship for Alpine Security) 

Dedicated to the field of avalanche prevention and rescue as well as alpine accident research

Organizer of several workshops and conferences

  1. Bergrettung (Mountain rescue services)

Provides valuable tips for skiers and tourers


Private institutions

Österreichischer Alpenverein (Austrian Alpine Club) - different organisation for each Austrian Federal State expert advice and training of proven experts

Österreichische Berg-und Schiführer (Austrian alpine guides) - Up-to-date reports, safety tips

Code of behaviour in event of avalanches, correct safety equipment


National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

No central association of Ski Area Operators; rather organized in regional tourism associations

Fachverband Die Seilbahnen Österreichs, angesiedelt bei der Wirtschaftskammer, WKO (cable cars of Ausrtia, located by the chamber of commerce)  


Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

bsR Forschungsstelle für Bergsportrecht (research center for law concerning mountain sports) 

Development and Improvement of Austrian and international legal standards

The aim is to reduce accident damages concerning mountain activities


POLAND (credits: Dominik Wolski)


National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

$1   Authorities

       Minister of the Interior (general responsibility for ensuring safety conditions in the mountains, ski areas including, supervision on police and mountain rescue services, issuing regulations on technical and safety conditions in the organized ski areas

       Police (in charge to conduct controls in the organized ski areas in respect to alcohol sobriety and/or safety behaviour of skiers and snowboarders (i.a. disrespect of safety conditions in the organizes ski area)

       Supreme Audit Office (in charge to conduct audits in terms of observance of safety conditions in the organized ski areas)


      Public/private institutions:

      Mountain Voluntary Rescue Service (Górskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe) – provides mountain rescue services i.a. in the organized ski areas (except Tatra Mountains)

         Tatra Voluntary Rescue Service (Tatrzańskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe) – provides mountain rescue services i.a. in the organized ski areas located in Tatra Mountains


      Private institutions:

      Polish Ski Association – Polish official ski association responsible for professional skiing and snowboarding, training of ski and snowboard staff (in particular ski and snowboard sport trainers) and promotion of safety rules in professional and non-professional winter sports   

      Association of Ski instructors and Trainers – training of ski staff (instructors, trainers), promotion of safety behavior in the organized ski areas (i.a. FIS rules)

      Association of Snowboard Instructors and Trainers – training of snowboard staff (instructors, trainers), promotion of safety behavior in organized ski areas (i.a. FIS rules)                                 


      National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators:

      In Poland there is no central association of ski area operators

      Polish Ski and Touristic Stations (Polskie Stacje Narciarskie i Turystyczne) – the association gathers main and the biggest ski area operators in Poland, it organizes annual conferences on the issues related to ski areas concerning i.a. economic dimension, legal frames, technical issues, insurances, liability, etc., materials from conferences accessible on its website 


National conference "Legal Aspects of Safety in Mountain: Tourism, Sport, Recreation" (in Polish) 

ITALY (credits: Umberto Izzo)


National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:
Authorities: Overview

As regards the public and private subjects in charge of supervising the behaviors of skiers within a ski area, art. 21 of the Law 363/2003 provides:

Art. 21. (Subjects responsible for sanctions)
1. Subject to the regional laws already in force in the regions, the State Police, the State Forestry Corps, the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza Corps, as well as the local police, in carrying out the service supervision and rescue in ski resorts, shall monitor compliance with the provisions of this Act and impose the corresponding sanctions against those who infringe them.
2. Complaints relating to the violation of the provisions of Article 9, paragraph 1, are issued, normally, upon reports made by ski instructors.

According to this provision, which states that the supervision over the ski behaviors of ski areas and the power of issuing sanctions is a matter of public officers, no legal responsabilities have been found on a SAO who failed to block and to issue sanctions against a skier who was dangerously skiing and ended up colliding with a skier who resulted severily injured.

Additionally, at the regional level, only a 2002 regional law of Friuli Venezia Giulia provides for the professional role “pattugliatore” or “patroller”, who is defined by the law as “the individual who, acting under the supervision of SAOs, is in charge of carry on activities in the field of prevention and safety, by patrolling ski areas, taking care of SA signals, marking the borders according to the characteristics of the slopes and the snow conditions, controlling the conditions of the slopes, giving assistance in case of accidents, and taking care of any activities that could convey information to skiers concerning the behaviors on the slopes and the danger of the mountains”.

Public/private institutions 
Article 5 of the Law 363/2003 envisaged financial support for setting up policies for accident prevention, but after the first financial expenditure this provision was not financed again every year:

Art. 5 
(Information and dissemination of precautions aimed at the prevention of accidents)
1. For the financing of campaigns, on an annual basis, to promote safety in the exercise of winter sports, is allocated the sum of € 500,000 per annum, with effect from the 2003. Information campaigns are defined and prepared, after hearing the Permanent Conference for the relations between the state, the regions and the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano and the national sports federation responsible for winter sports recognized by the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI), the Minister for Regional Affairs, in agreement with the Minister of Health. The campaigns provide the more extensive information to those who practice winter sports, also providing the dissemination of knowledge of the classifications of the slopes, of the signs and the rules of conduct laid down by this law.
2. Within the limit of 20 percent of the resources allocated by subsection 1, the Minister for Education, University and Research agrees with the national sports federation responsible for winter sports recognized by the Olympic Committee to set up initiatives aimed at disseminating the knowledge of classifications of the slopes, the signs and the rules of conduct referred to in paragraph 1, also by entering into appropriate agreements and providing information campaigns to be carried out in schools, to be carried out during normal school hours.

The public institutions in charge of controlling the safety of SAs are mainly the regions or the autonomous provinces, while the central government play no role in this respect. Private institutions in charge of the safety of SAs are the private operators who run the SAs.   

At the statistical level, an important role for collecting and processing the information concerning the number e types of accident occurring every year in the Italian SAs is played by the Centro di addestramento alpino della Polizia di Stato di Moena, although this institution does not publish official reports every year (no web site of this institution appears to be available).

From 2003 to 2007 the SIMON system was administered to this extent by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità of Rome, but the last official report was issued in 2007 and since then no official data on ski accidents are reported at the national level in Italy.

National public or private entities representing the Ski Area Operators 
At the national and regional level ANEF (Associazione Nazionale degli Esercenti Funiviari - corresponding to the National Association of Ski Area Operators) is the private organization representing the industry, which gathers all the single private enterprise that run the business of ski areas in Italy. The ANEF of the Lombardia region worked, together with the regional government, to a model contract (whose text is also available in English) to provide to consumer skiers the services that these latter need to use safely a ski area (called: "Standard agreement for the use of skiable areas in the Lombardy Region"). Another website of an ANEF local association is that of the Autonomous Province of Bozen.

Other websites of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

FRANCE (credits: Christophe Quézel-ambrunaz)


National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:


Authorities: Overview

  • La police judiciaire a la possibilité de mener ses missions sur le domaine skiable (constatation des infractions, etc.).
  • La commune est la personne publique compétente pour la sécurité des domaines skiables, pour l’essentiel.
  • Le régime d’indemnisation des victimes d’accidents de ski est complexe, et fait intervenir de multiples intervenants.


Public institutions 

  • Le Service Technique des Remontées Mécaniques et des Transports Guidés (STRMTG) - Service du gouvernement (Ministère de l’écologie) compétent non exclusivement sur les domaines skiables. Joue un rôle dans l’élaboration de la réglementation, dans la délivrance d’agréments. A une mission d’études et de recherches, qui donnent notamment des données d’accidentologie.
  • Le Système National d'Observation de la Sécurité en Montagne - Service du gouvernement (Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports, mais aussi de l’Intérieur et de la Désfense), basé à l'Ecole Nationale de Ski et d'Alpinisme (E.N.S.A.) de Chamonix, recense par l'intermédiaire des préfectures des départements de montagne les interventions réalisées par les services de sécurité sur les domaines skiables alpins et nordiques des stations de sports d'hiver en période d'exploitation.
  • Commission de la sécurité des consommateurs - N’a pas de vocation particulière à traiter des accidents de ski, mais rend parfois des avis en la matière.
  • Prévention hiver - Site du ministère de la jeunesse et des sports, destiné à diffuser largement des conseils de prévention
  • Peloton de Gendarmerie de Haute-Montagne - Concerne plus évidemment le ski-alpinisme et les pratiques extrêmes. Site non-officiel du PGHM de Chamonix.


Private institutions

  • École du ski français - Émanation du syndicat des moniteurs de ski. Principale école de ski en France. Rôle important dans la formation des skieurs et des moniteurs, diffusion de consignes de sécurité.
  • Association française de normalisation (AFNOR) - N’a pas de vocation particulière pour les accidents de ski, mais propose un ensemble de normes (balisage des pistes, information sur les risques d’avalanche).
  • La Association des médecins de montagne (MdeM) - Association regroupant 250 (sur 350) médecins basés en montagne. Donne des conseils de prévention, propose des formations, et diffuse des données d’accidentologie des sports d’hiver.
  • Domaines Skiables de France - Domaines Skiables de France est la chambre professionnelle des opérateurs de domaines skiables. Elle propose des formations, des examens, et publie un certain nombre d’indicateurs chiffrés.
  • Centre d’études et de recherches sur la neige et les avalanches - Association sans but lucratif, qui poursuit des objectifs de recherche, de formation, et de diffusion de la connaissance autour de la neige et des avalanches. Il est composé de trois groupes, un groupe scientifique, un groupe juridique, et un groupe médical.


Academic resources


Master de Droit de la montagne

L'Accident en Montagne (video) - Demi-journée d’échanges entre juristes et professionnels de la montagne - Chambéry - 30 juin 2015 - Manifestation organisée par le Laboratoire CDPPOC de la Faculté de Droit de Chambéry a l'occasion de la publication de l'ouvrage "L'accident en montagne: étude juridique"






National public and private institutions that play a role in fostering the goal of safety of the ski areas:

Authorities: Overview

Guardia Civil (Civil Guard)

Public security body charged with police duties. One of its branches is devoted to rescue and intervention in the mountains and other places of difficult access. Since 1981 it comprises the former ‘Skiers Unit’. Currently skiers are organized in the so-called ‘Grupos de Rescate Especial de Intervención en Montaña’ (Special Rescue Groups of Intervention in the Mountains [GREIM]). One of the missions of this branch is to guarantee public security in ski areas.

Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports)

The Ministry sets the conditions under which the professional card of ski instructor can be obtained and carries out the tests accordingly. 


Public/private institutions 

Cruz Roja (Red Cross) 

Humanitarian movement, part of the International Red Cross Organization. It provides help in case of accidents or emergencies.


Private institutions 

Real Federación Española Deportes de Invierno (Royal Spanish Federation of Winter Sports)

Private federation which assembles the regional federations related to winter sports and many stakeholders in this sphere. The RFEDI chooses which sportsmen will represent Spain in international competitions, and represents Spain before the International Ski Federation, among other things.

Asociación Española Ski-Man (Spanish Aeskiman Society)

This society is devoted to the promotion and protection of the so-called ski-man profession.

Asociación de Escuelas, Profesores y Entrenadores de Deportes de Invierno (Society of Schoold, Teachers and Trainers of Winter Sports)

It is basically devoted to the protection of the profession and prevention of professional intrusion, as well as guaranteeing teaching quality.

Escuela Española de Esquí & Snowof Sierra Nevada(Spanish School of Ski and Snowboard)

An example of a ski school located in Sierra Nevada, one of the most important ski resorts in Spain.

Reial Automòbil Club de Catalunya (Royal Car Club of Catalonia)

One of the most important private insurers in the region of Catalonia. It provides examples of available insurance cover. Other insurers providing such cover are Mapfre, FIATC Seguros, Europ Assistance, Axa, Intermundial, etc. Eroski, a popular publication aimed at consumers, provides an overview of ski accidents insurance.


National public or private entities which represent the Ski Area Operators 

Asociación Turística de Estaciones de Esquí y Montaña (Tourist Society of Ski and Mountain Resorts [ATUDEM])

It brings together 31 ski and mountain stations or resorts in Spain. Such society has asked the Spanish Government to pass a regulatory framework on safety in winter sports and the rational use of sky areas.


Other website of academic or professional origin that provide useful information to our subject of research

Some information of accidents skiing or in the mountain can be found online. There is for instance information about accidents in Sierra Nevada in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013a.

Some education on sports in the mountain is provided by the Escuela Española de Alta Montaña (Spanish School of the High Mountain [EEAM]). This school is depending on the Federación Española de Deportes de Alta Montaña y Escalada (Spanish Federation of High Mountain and Alpinism Sports [FEDME]), which issues the so-called ‘federative licence’ (an identification card which also includes insurance cover).

Some statistical information on the intervention of the security forces in cases of accidents in the mountain can easily be found in the Wikipedia. There seems to be a lack of official, comprehensive statistics.




Belgium and the Netherlands (credits: PIETER DE TAVERNIER) 


Federations : Dutch Ski Federation : Dutch Ski Federation/Snowboard Koninklijke Belgische Ski Federatie (Royal Belgian Ski Federation: see also : Ski- and Snowboardfederation Flanders : Fédération Francophone Belge de Ski (French speaking Ski Federation Belgium)


See also the websites of the Belgian and Dutch Alpine clubs:



Ski Resorts in the Netherlands and Belgium (indoor): Indoor Skiing in the Netherlands


Example: Snowboarding in the Netherlands



Ski-Instructors in the Netherlands and Belgium : Dutch Snow Sports Academy Belgian Federation of Snowsport Instructors





Insurances: : Royal Dutch Climbing Federation (NKBV) : Dutch Ski Federation/Traval Insurance (see also the Annual Report of the Dutch Ski Federation: (Information about snow sports via Skifederation Flanders)




Alpine Clubs: : AG Insurance : Allianz Global Assistance.



Information about Safety, Equipment, … in Winter Sport Magazines: : Wintersport Magazine Wintersport Magazine edited by the Royal Dutch Climbing Federation. : Magazine edited by the Belgian Climbing and Mountaineering Association (KBF).


University of Trento Research Units Involved in the Project


Department of Industrial Engineering

Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science

Faculty of Law - LawTech Research Group



Research Team


Paolo BOSETTI (Principal Investigator)

Francesco BIRAL 


Umberto IZZO

David MACII 







A person buried by a snow avalanche can be found by measuring the magnetic field generated by an avalanche beacon or ARVA carried by the victim. However, the signals received are difficult to interpret and require people with good training on the actual searching techniques. Even in this case, though, the find and rescue operation can be significantly slowed down by the typically steep, rough, and uneven ground of an avalanche area. Given the fact that the probability of survival drops from 90% to 30% between 18 and 30 min after the event, any technology that can speed up the spotting of the beacon signal can effectively reduce the death risk for buried people.

We propose to develop a hexacopter drone for helping the rescue team in finding and marking the positions of buried people. Such a drone would carry an ARVA receiver, a collection of systems for mapping, localization, navigation, and attitude/cruise control, and a device for physically marking the position of buried ARVA beacons (e.g., by dropping a flag, by paint-marking, etc.). The rescue team would launch the drone upon arrival on the avalanche scenario and define a geographic boundary for the search area by means of a proper remote interface with the drone controller. As soon as the drone localizes and marks the first beacon, the rescue team can start digging around the first mark, while the drone proceeds in searching for possible other beacon signals. In terms of time efficiency, this scenario has a two advantages: firstly, given that the speed of the drone largely exceeds that of human rescuers—especially considering the uneven and steep ground they are typically moving on—, the beacon localization time can be significantly reduced; secondly, the search for any subsequent buried people can happen in parallel while the rescue team is busy digging, not to mention that a swarm of drones can prove even more effective in compressing the average finding time.

Development of such a system is a highly interdisciplinary task, demanding for competences in mechatronics, automation, control, measurements, signal processing, and tackling of possible legal issues. To date, there are no examples of similar systems on the market, although there are very recent and ongoing research efforts with similar objectives triggered by the recent fast developments in the market of small UAVs. We reckon that this is the right time for starting research activities in this field within our University, for three reasons: i) technology readiness: small robotic drones and UAVs can be realized at reasonable costs; ii) competences: after the recent rearrangement of university Departments, we have now most of the competences of interest in this field in a contiguous space (Povo 2 building, hosting both the Dpt. of Industrial Engineering and the Dpt. of Information Engineering and Computer Science); iii) a large, indoor space suitable to be equipped as a drone testing area has been recently made available to the DII.




D-FAB project aims at developing a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) drone for assisting Alpine rescue teams in locating avalanche buried and semi-buried people, with the aim of shortening the localization time thus improving the chances of saving their lives.

The project has to solve a number of problems, relevant to different disciplines:

  1. Drone design. Sturdy, rugged drone mechanical design, suitable for operation in harsh winter alpine conditions. Typical operating conditions—together with the characteristics of the payload needed for victims localization—impact on the system design at different levels, from the power storage, to the resistance against water and humidity, low temperatures, and to the ability to fly in a controllable and stable way even in presence of significant winds as it may be the case on high altitude scenarios. Also thanks to the expertise of DII members in designing and realizing autonomous vehicles and control systems (also considering aerodynamics aspects)[3–6], and in manufacturing structural components in composite materials, it will be realized a prototype of a lightweight, resistant, and foldable VTOL drone structure—which is not yet available as off-the-shelf solution.
  2. Scenario and ego-state reconstruction, by applying sensor fusion techniques to a set of lower level measurements, including GPS location, inertial navigation, height-over-ground detection, apparent wind direction and intensity, ground morphology. More precisely, this will be addressed by developing algorithms that exploit computer vision and image processing techniques to deal with the huge quantity of information that UAV collects (possibly offloaded to a ground station for elaboration) [22,23]. It will consist in the design of a nonlinear filter, which combines image gradient features and Gaussian process (GP) modeling. The image gradient features allow capturing detailed information regarding the structure of the investigated classes of objects (human figures, semi-buried personal items) whereas the GP model fed with image gradient features permits to yield a statistical estimate of the presence of objects of interest for any position within the image. The image/video acquisitions will be performed from predetermined altitude very close to the ground. Accordingly, the GP model will be trained with a library of predefined objects with adequate spatial resolutions. In order to speed up the algorithm, a fast and simple screening technique based on application of adaptive image threshold will be adopted in order to reduce the areas to be analyzed by the detector.
  3. Localization of buried and semi-buried avalanche victims, possibly using standard ARVA beacons together with image analysis and classification, by using the very approach described in B and coherently fused with the other sensed data, for incrementally updating a map of the avalanche area, marking the presence of beacons, items (skis, backpacks), and semi-buried human figures. Regarding beacon signal analysis, there are still few examples of automatic searching. One of the key problems arises from the uncertainty about the transmitter orientation. In fact, the direction of the transmitter antenna changes radically the field shape. From a general point of view, with respect to classical far–field identification problem, in this case we have to identify 6 states for each transmitter, instead of 3, while we can only collect 3 measurements (the H-field vector components). Amongst other solutions based on complex antenna arrangement and circuitry, it is worth recalling the solution proposed in [7, 8]—based upon Bayesian estimation theory and Kalman filters—which is going to be adopted in the project, much likely to prove compatible with the constraints for a drone on-board system.
  4. Navigation. The operating scenario presents harsh conditions and stringent time constraints. Consequently, in our envisioned application, the operators set goals and constraints for the mission and define search areas for the drone. The drone executes the mission autonomously and whenever a meaningful event takes place (e.g., localization of a victim or completion of the scanning mission on the assigned area), it releases markers to pinpoint locations of interest and send notification to the rescue team. During the mission execution operators are relieved of the task of guiding the drone and can shift their attention to other goals (e.g., setting up a protected area for emergency care or dig out a victim that the drone has already located). Mission planning and control in a partially unknown environment with mission critical goals is a difficult task, for which robust and reliable solution are not yet available. The problem is hybrid in nature since the continuous dynamics of the drone is combined to a “logical” formulation of constraints and goals [20] but the hostile environment conditions and the need for flexible response to unanticipated events, requires robust solutions such as can be offered by probabilistic approaches [21] for the specification of the mission and for the search of the solution space. As far as the navigation is concerned, the drone is associated with a set of basic maneuvers (symbols), each one implemented by a suitable control law and associated with a change in the state of the system (e.g., a change in the coordinates). Navigation is implemented by a sequence of symbols decided by the planning algorithms and executed by the control algorithm. The correct sequence is identified by an optimization framework that breaks the high level goals down into a sequence of elementary changes each one implemented by a control symbol. The algorithm will fully exploit the information coming from Task 4 (environmental condition monitoring, surface reconstruction, localization, presence of beacons) and the detected environmental features to plan optimal routes for patrolling the area of interest. According to the stochastic models based on the precious experience of the Alpine Rescue Service as well as on the changing weather conditions (e.g., the presence of sudden wind gusts), the goals and the changes in the state by each symbol have a probabilistic nature. So, the mission planner decides the course of actions that maximizes the probability of fulfilling the goals and meeting the constraints. A mission supervisor monitors the execution of the mission and triggers alternative plans if significant deviations are detected with respect to the planned progress.
  5. Human-Machine Interface. Most of the operational efficacy of our solution lies in the ability for the human operators to easily and effectively and securely define the mission objectives and constraints, and to receive readable and unambiguous notifications of the meaningful events. The harshness of the operational scenario (irregular illumination, presence snow and gales, heavy garments and glass that obstruct the visibility of screen) can put a strain on the most readable interfaces if these factors are not adequately accounted for. What is more, the use of gloves and the low temperature of the fingertips can seriously reduce the precision and the efficacy of using the touch screen. These considerations discourage the straightforward utilization of existing smart phone and tablet apps that have become the natural companion of low cost commercial drones. A close cooperation with a sample of potential users belonging to the rescue teams will allow us to the requirements of the interface, which will be fine-tuned with field tests on potential operational scenarios.
  6. Legal aspects: concerning both legal standards for drones operability and civil and criminal liability rules for controlling and preventing human-induced avalanches. As for the first subtopic, operating a drone poses significant and unprecedented legal issues, considering that the first attempt in regulating drone flight is extremely recent (the first Italian regulation of this new aerial technology was issued by ENAC in 2013 and the UE is currently preparing a uniform discipline across member states - More specifically, the issues to be considered are: role of the civil aviation authority over drone operations; safety and manufacturing standards as well as product liability rules; rules of civil liability applicable to drone-induced damages in the event of mid-air collisions or surface crushes; privacy issues, since data collected by UAVs must comply with the applicable data protection rules, and data protection authorities must monitor the subsequent collection and processing of personal data. As regards the second subtopic, a vast debate flourishes in legal literature today on the civil, criminal and administrative rules aimed at controlling the risk of avalanches, since the diffusion of the practice of ski ride and extra slopes skiing (also encouraged by winter tourism marketing strategies) increases the statistical occurrence of avalanches and calls for the application of more severe rules to skiers engaged in such practice, also inducing a serious concern for the social allocation of the costs associated to the rescuing of avalanche-buried skiers. This debate needs to be analyzed and reconstructed in order to provide the research project with an in-depth analysis of the law and economics of avalanche prevention, which is the field targeted by the innovative product at the core of the research project.

Clearly the operational efficiency of the proposed system strongly depends on the integration of these interdisciplinary aspects, as it is typical for mechatronics devices. For these reasons, the team proposing this research has been selected in order to provide a set of competences encompassing all the problems A.–F.





Paolo BOSETTI (Principal Investigator)

Francesco BIRAL 


Umberto IZZO

David MACII 






Requirement and specifications for both the drone and the testing facility are defined and collected, also according to the Quality Function Deployment approach. During this phase, the Advisory Board and the Alpine Rescue Service of the Autonomous Province of Trento are involved in defining requirements and use-case scenarios. Particular care is paid in defining the power and payload weight budget for the drone, taking into consideration statistics on survival time expectancy for buried people and number of buried people per avalanche. Also, a set of reference tests to be performed when assessing the prototype effectiveness is here defined.

Results: A Req&Spec manual is released after month 2, and later on it is updated when needed.

Members of the research team in this task: ALL.

  1. Drone Architecture

According to Task 1 outcome, this task carries out the design and development of the VTOL drone. Whenever possible and meaningful, off-the-shelf subsystems and components will be adopted, in order to minimize the development time. Prototyping facilities of the Mechatronics Group (Bosetti and Biral) as well as expertise in developing composite structures (Migliaresi) are exploited for realizing custom components and structures. Also, aerodynamics modeling and simulation expertise is available within the DII (Trivellato)

It is also investigated—and possibly implemented—the separation of some computational demanding, (but non time-critical) operations, which can be offloaded to a ground station (as the laptop/tablet controller) in order to limit the weight and power consumption of the drone.

A critical point is the definition of a hardware software architecture that permits an easy integration of hardware and software components. We will adopt a layered approach, with a bottom layer composed of low-power hardware (e.g., PIC or Arduino microcontrollers) used to control sensors and actuators and interconnected by a reliable bus infrastructure (e.g., CAN), and a top layer embedding all the computing hardware required for the processing of visual data, and for planning and control functions (which could be based on a quad-core ARM board). The software layer will build on top of an infrastructure consisting of a real-time operating system (most likely a real-time variant of the Linux Kernel) and of a lightweight middleware to enable an easy integration of software components.

Results: a working prototype drone, refined enough to allow the evaluation of its performance: maneuverability, stability, speed, energy efficiency, compatibility with mountain harsh environment, transportability.

Members of the research team in this task: Biral, Bosetti, Fontanelli, Migliaresi, Trivellato

  1. Mapping and Navigation

This Task is in charge of designing two main functions for fulfilling the desired goal: a) understanding the surrounding environment, b) locating possible victims, and c) autonomous navigation. 

According to the approaches discussed in the Project description, this central task hosts the development and preliminary testing of subsystems dedicated to ARVA beacon localization, self-localization and mapping of the surrounding environment, and algorithms for navigation and control of the drone. These activities are carried out on a functional subsystem approach: after designing a high-level architecture that defines the communication standards and interfaces, the three above named functions are individually developed and tested before integration.

Results: ARVA beacon signal processing algorithms for buried localization; image processing algorithms to define the context; a navigation algorithm for drones acting in harsh environments.

Members of the research team in this task: Melgani, Biral, Fontanelli, Palopoli

T 4 Smart Sensing

This task focuses on designing suitable sensing techniques that are specifically tailored to support drone navigation in avalanche areas. The presence of severe slopes or large obstacles (e.g., trees, rocks) and, more in general, the roughness of the surface due to the rubble transported by the avalanche itself, can indeed make drone navigation much more difficult than in usual scenarios. These problems are further emphasized by the strong requirement of flying steadily at a limited height (e.g., a few meters) above the avalanche to maximize the probability to detect the signal broadcasted by the ARVA device. 

The task on smart sensing will consists of the following subtasks:

  • Analysis and selection of different types of sensors to select the most suitable devices. Besides a GPS receiver coupled with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with a small form factor, an ultrasonic or a laser-based system are envisioned to scan the surface and to measure in real-time and with high accuracy (a few centimeters) both height-over-ground and distance from possible obstacles. A camera will be also included for context refinement and enhanced diagnostic capabilities in synergy with Task 3.
  • Development of a data fusion algorithm (e.g., an extended Kalman filter or an unscented Kalman filter) to estimate the 3-D position of the drone in the avalanche area. The area of search will be defined through the HMI. The algorithm should be robust even when the GPS data are not available.

Resultslist of sensors to be integrated on the drone; localization and position-tracking algorithm tested and characterized through simulations and preliminary experiments.

Members of the research team in this task: Macii, Fontanelli

  1. Human-Machine Interface

A main, tablet-based HMI is developed, allowing the drone operator to give a set of high-level directives and to access drone status information. In particular, the HMI must provide a way for quickly defining the boundary of the research area, the initial search direction, the patrolling height-over-ground, and other navigation parameters, and possibly to see on a local GPS-based map the location of beacons, updated as the drone localizes them. Effectiveness and viability of human spoken language interface (via portable radios that are common equipment for rescue teams) is also investigated and possibly implemented.

Results: prototype software to be deployed on tablet devices for controlling the drone.

Members of the research team in this task: Palopoli, Bosetti

  1. Test Facility

The hangar located in Pergine Valsugana, which is in the availabilities of DII, is equipped with devices and structures in order to allow indoor testing of drones in perfect safety for researchers and in conformity with the recent national regulations (which make relatively difficult outdoor testing). The hangar is a 25m x 40m space with a free height exceeding 20m. A large, yarn mesh surrounded volume is delimited within it, leaving small corridors around it for access, protecting the drone(s) from hitting people, equipment, or walls/ceilings. An inclined yarn mesh on the testing volume floor holding polyurethane foam blocks of various shapes can be used for simulating the uneven surface of an avalanche area. A suitable indoor localization system is selected and installed, in order to allow the simulation of a GPS-system and also providing a reliable ground-truth, essential for the testing phases. Other systems and infrastructures, as arrays of RGBD cameras also used for image recognition, WiFi networks, RFID beacons, are possibly also implemented, according to results of Task 1.

Results: a testing facility represented by a yarn-mesh surrounded isolated volume of about 20x30x20m3, equipped with 3-D localization system and other ground-based communication, computation, and measurement systems, according to results of Task 1.

Members of the research team in this task: Fontanelli, Biral, Bosetti, Macii, Melgani

  1. Integration

Subsystems of Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are integrated on the drone prototype resulting from Task 2. The resulting prototype is also integrated with subsystems and instrumentations of the testing facilities (with particular regards for the indoor localization system).

Results: A complete drone prototype, able to autonomously navigate within the testing facility, to localize an ARVA beacon, and to mark its position both physically (e.g., by a flag) and as its 3-D coordinates via HMI.

Members of the research team in this task: Bosetti, Fontanelli, Macii, Melgani, Migliaresi

  1. Testing

The prototype drone is run against the set of tests defined in Task 1, where it has to localize an ARVA beacon in the testing facility. The figure of quality is an index encompassing the time for localization, the accuracy and the repeatability of each localization, and the failure rate. The same tests are also performed by human ARVA operators to provide a reference benchmark.

Results: a set of statistics, showing how the prototype drone can improve the effectiveness of buried localization w.r.t. human ARVA operators.

Members of the research team in this task: Biral, All

  1. Legal analysis, Legal compliance, Interaction with Stakeholders, Dissemination

This task is collateral to all the other tasks of the project, and will cover the entire 18 months duration of the project, being divided in 2 phases: 12 months dedicated to legal analysis of issues in the Italian and European context; the following 6 months focusing on the legal compliance of the project, a task that will ease the dissemination of the project results with the external institutions involved and the stakeholders interested to the industrial exploitation of the project (CAI, Alpine Rescue Service, Police operators, ski area operators industry). The first phase will entail comparative research and critical evaluation of the legal sources applicable to drone operation and avalanche safety; and will culminate with the preparation of a study report. Building on the results of the first phase, the second phase will check the legal compliance of the project, envisaging internal seminars with the investigators responsible for the main task of the project, as well as workshop with stakeholders and end-users representatives, like the Italian Alpine Club (CAI), its local section SAT, and the Alpine Rescue Service, and ski area operator industry representatives, who will improve the solidity of the project assumptions with their knowledge about the real experience in carrying out a rescue operation for avalanche buried people.

Finally, An Advisory Board is appointed within this task, and involved in project by meeting with the project steering committee every six months. Also, fundraising and sponsorship opportunities are evaluated with the aim of providing continuity and successful exploitation during and after the project end.

Results: contributions to definition of requirements in Task 1, and continuous improvement throughout the project. Dissemination activities (papers, conferences, final event). Guidelines for legal aspects.

Members of the research team in this task: Izzo, Bosetti, Macii, Migliaresi

dott. Filippo Marco Maria Bisanti

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J. D. (Dottore magistrale in Giurisprudenza) 


Doctor in Political Sciences (Dottore di primo livello in Scienze Politiche)


Specialized in the Legal Professions (Specializzato nelle Professioni Legali)


Trainee (d.l. n. 69/2013 - l. n. 98/2013) at the Court of Trento (2.12.2014 - 1.06.2016)


II level Master in Law and Criminal Process






Advanced course “Il giudice onorario nel Tribunale per i Minorenni. Attività e competenze multidisciplinari in un contesto”, Istituto Sike (2018).



Advanced course “Giustizia penale minorile: il minore autore di reato , Università degli Studi di Milano (2018).



II level Master in Law and Criminal Process, Università Telematica Pegaso (2018); title of the thesis: “I poteri del Giudice dell'Esecuzione: un chiarimento delle Sezioni Unite Penali”.



Graduated at the School of Specialization for the Access to the Legal Professions - Università Guglielmo Marconi - Rome (2014); title of the thesis: “La natura giuridica delle obbligazioni contratte dal condominio verso terzi nei principi della Corte di Cassazione e nelle innovazioni normative”; supervisor: Prof.ssa Carmelita Rizza.



Graduated in Law at the University of Trento – Italy (2012); title of the thesis: “Il mobbing nei rapporti di lavoro e i suoi riflessi nell’ordinamento miltare”; supervisor: Prof.ssa Stefania Brun.



Graduated in Political Sciences, laurea di primo livello - Università Cesare Alfieri di Firenze – Italy (2010); title of the thesis:  “La concussione sessuale”; supervisor: Prof. Antonio Vallini.



Graduated in Legal Studies at the Università del Sacro Cuore – Italy (2008); title of the thesis “Il Titolo “De Iureiurando” nello Speculum Iudiciale di Guglielmo Durante”; supervisor: Prof. Antonio Liva.



Research Interests


Civil Law; Criminal Law; Law of tourism sports; Maritime Law.



Teaching Activities


Member of the Commission in charge of administering the final exam of the Course of Civil Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Trento


Member of the Commission in charge of administering the final exam of the Course of Private Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Trento 





- F. Bisanti, Profili risarcitori, in A. Conz, L. Levita (a cura di), La nuova legittima difesaCommento organico alla legge 26 aprile 2019, n. 36, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2019, pp. 247-278.


- F. Bisanti, I minorenni e la polizia giudiziaria. Attività di polizia giudiziaria e diritto penale minorile: l’ostico connubio tra il rigore del diritto e la condizione di minore età, Primiceri Editore, Padova, 2019.


- F. Bisanti, Dei delitti contro il patrimonio, in A.Conz, L. Levita (a cura di), La nuova legge anticorruzione. Commento organico alla legge 9 gennaio 2019, n. 3, in tema di reati contro la PA, di prescrizione, di trasparenza di partiti e movimenti politici, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2019, pp. 85-95.


- F. Bisanti, L'estensione dell'ambito di applicazione del divieto di accesso ai luoghi in cui svolgono manifestazioni sportive; L'obbligo per locatori con contratti di durata inferiore ai trenta giorni, in A.Conz, L. Levita (a cura di), Il decreto Salvini su immigrazione e sicurezza. Commento organico al d.l. 4 ottobre 2018, 113, come convertito dalla legge 1 dicembre 2018, n. 132, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2018, pp. 374-402.


 - F. Bisanti, La circostanza aggravante del bene esposto alla pubblica fede: una precisazione di legittimità, in in, Primiceri Editore, gennaio 2019.


- F. Bisanti, L'estensione dell'ambito di applicazione del divieto di accesso ai luoghi in cui svolgono manifestazioni sportive;  L'obbligo per locatori con contratti di durata inferiore ai trenta giorni, in A.Conz, L. Levita (a cura di), Il decreto Salvini su immigrazione e sicurezza. Commento organico al d.l. 4 ottobre 2018, 113, come convertito dalla legge 1 dicembre 2018, n. 132, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2018, pp. 374-402.


- F. Bisanti,La responsabilità della società sportiva dilettantistica per l’illecito (doloso) commesso dal proprio atleta in gara,in Rivista italiana di diritto del turismo, Franco Angeli, Milano, 20-21/2017, pp. 329-349.


- F. Bisanti,  La responsabilità civile sportiva: esegesi, struttura e profili applicativi con particolare riferimento a una gara ciclistica amatoriale, in Rivista di Diritto Sportivo, Giappichelli Editore per il C.O.N.I., Torino-Roma, I/2018, pp. 237-258.


F. Bisanti, Insidie sul campo da calcio: non si dia la colpa all’arbitro!, in Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, II/2018, pp. 159-171.


- F. Bisanti, aggiornamento giurisprudenziale del Libro V, delle Disposizione di attuazione c.p.p. e della normativa G.d.P. nel codice A. Conz, F. A. Genovese, L. Levita, B. Sassani, Codice di procedura civile e di procedura penale annotato con la giurisprudenza, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2018.


- F.Bisanti, Uno studente calcia la sfera da pallavolo per rimetterla in campo e colpisce un insegnante. Chi risponde?, in Rivista di Diritto Sportivo, Giappichelli Editore per il C.O.N.I., Torino-Roma, II/2017, pp. 377-390.


- F. Bisanti, I casi di ricorso per cassazione avverso le sentenze di appello pronunciate per reati del giudice di pace e La modifica alla disciplina delle impugnazioni nei procedimenti innanzi al giudice di pace”, in A. Conz-L.Levita Le nuove impugnazioni dopo la riforma Orlando. Commento organico al d.lgs. 6 febbraio 2018, n. 11, Dike Giuridica, Roma, pp. 61-71,  89-93.


- F. Bisanti, La polizia giudiziaria, Primiceri Editore, Padova, 2017.


- F. Bisanti, Tavoli permanenti provincialiSupporto della aziende sequestrate o confiscateLa tutela ‘anticipata’ dei crediti sorti prima del sequestroLa destinazione dei beni confiscati. Art. 45-bis e la liberazione degli immobili e delle aziendeLa destinazione dei beni e delle somme, in L. De Gennaro-N. Graziano, La nuova legislazione antimafia. Commento organico alla Legge 17 ottobre 2017, n. 161, di riforma del codice antimafia, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2017, pp. 261-298.


- F. Bisanti, L’ingresso di tre dirigenti sportivi in campo per aggredire il direttore di gara di un incontro di calcio: riflessi della condotta in ambito penale e conseguenze sanzionatorie, in Rivista di diritto ed economina dello sport,  II/2017, pp. 187-199. 


 - F. Bisanti, aggiornamento giurisprudenziale degli artt. 241-452 c.p. per il codice V. Scordamaglia, F. Caringella, L. Cameriero, Codice penale e delle leggi penali speciali annotato con la giurisprudenza, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2017.


- F. Bisanti, La delimitazione giuridica di un tracciato sciistico: una precisazione di legittimità, in Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, I/2017, pp. 187-194.


- F. Bisanti, Il collegamento funzionale tra sequestro probatorio e preventiva perquisizione: profili applicativi in tema di avviso della facoltà di farsi assistere da un difensore di fiducia, in, Primiceri Editore, agosto 2017.


- F. Bisanti, La sottile linea tra il reato di tentato omicidio e volontario e lesione personale: le precisazioni della Cassazione, in, Primiceri Editore, agosto 2017.


- F. Bisanti, L'inseguimento investigativo del reo: le Sezioni Unite escludono la flagranza se l'arresto avviene sulla base di informazioni della vittima o di terzi fornite nell'immediatezza del fatto, in, Primiceri Editore, agosto 2017.


- F. Bisanti, Disposizioni generali. Impugnazione dell’imputato; Forma dell’impugnazione e il capitolo Ulteriori modifiche al codice di procedura penale, in L. Levita-A. Conz (a cura di), La riforma della giustizia penale 2017, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2017,  pp. 149-152, 179-189.


 - F. Bisanti, Il Garante per il diritto alla salute nell'universo della Autorità indipendenti, in La nuova responsabilità del sanitario. Analisi della legge n. 24/2017, in tema di sicurezza delle cure e responsabilità medica, Nuova Giuridica Editore, Matelica, 2017.


- F. Bisanti, La cooperazione colposa in ambito medico: l'arduo compito del giudice di merito di far luce sulle singole condotte dei sanitari intervenuti, in Diritto e giurisprudenza commmentata, Dike Giuridica, Roma, VI/2016, pp. 48-58.


- F. Bisanti, Usi impropri dell'area sciabile: responsabilità civile e assicurazione, in Giustizia, Giuffrè, febbraio 2017.


- F. Bisanti, La responsabilità civile del gestore di un'area sciabile, in Rivista di Diritto Sportivo, Giappichelli Editore per il C.O.N.I., Torino-Roma, I/2016, pp. 146-163.


- F. Bisanti, I fattori naturali e l'accompagnamento in montagna: profili di responsabilità del professionista, in Salvis Juribus (Rivista on-line, ottobre 2016.


- F. Bisanti, Le contravvenzioni e gli illeciti amministrativi, in L. Levita (a cura di), La legislazione sugli stupefacenti. Aspetti normativi, sanzionatori e procedurali, Nuova Giuridica, Matelica, 2016.


- F. Bisanti, Comportamento in caso di incidente (art. 189 CdS); Sanzioni amministrative accessorie all’accertamento dei reati (art. 222 CdS);  Revoca della patente di guida (art. 219 CdS); Il ritiro della patente di guida in conseguenza di ipotesi di reato (art. 223 CdS), in A.Conz, L. Levita (a cura di), Il nuovo reato di omicidio stradale. Commento organico alle nuove disposizioni introdotte dalla legge 23 marzo 2016, n. 41, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2016, pp. 167-191.


- F. Bisanti, Calcetto e natura bilaterale della responsabilità in caso di caduta del calciatore sul campo da gioco, in Rivista Italiana di Diritto del Turismo, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano, 2015, XIII, pp. 30-37.


F. Bisanti, Il reato commesso per fede calcistica è aggravato dai futili motivi, in Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, II/2015, pp. 161-167.


- F. Bisanti, L’adesione al legato in sostituzione di legittima è un atto di disposizione revocabile?; L’azione di riduzione delle donazioni e legittimario interamente pretermesso; Lo stato di abbandono del minore, in T. Pasquino, Antologia di casi giurisprudenziali. Materiali per lo studio del diritto privato, Giappichelli Editore, Torino, 2015, pp. 51-65, 89-99, 345-353. 


 - F. Bisanti, Il disegno criminoso nel reato continuato: alla ricerca della “unicità” tra dicta giurisprudenziali e dubbi non sopiti, in (a cura del prof. Cendon), 2015.


F. Bisanti, Attribuzione della qualifica di agente di pubblica sicurezza con funzioni di polizia di prevenzione Identità di copertura, tutela del personale nel corso di procedimenti giudiziari e attività di informazione di ricerca elettronica verso l’estero, in A. Conz, L. Levita (a cura di), Antiterrorismo. Commento organico al d.l. 18 febbraio 2015, n. 7, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2015, pp. 257-267.


- F. Bisanti, Le autorità preposte alla sicurezza e alla polizia della navigazione, in Izzo-Morandi (a cura di), La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo – L’acqua. Mari, laghi e fiumi, Giappichelli Editore, Torino, 2015, pp. 135-145. 


F. Bisanti, Le modifiche in tema di casellario giudiziale, in Levita-Conz, La depenalizzazione. Commento organico alla legge n. 67/2014, in tema di particolare tenuità del fatto, sospensione del processo e messa alla prova. Aggiornato al D. Lgs. 16 marzo 2015, n. 28, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2015, pp. 133-140.


F. Bisanti, I danni nell'universo familiare in Tecniche di accertamento e liquidazione del danno. L'universo del risarcimento dei danni civili, Nuova Giuridica, Matelica, 2015, pp. 65-129.


F. Bisanti, Interruzione della prescrizione e decadenzaObblighi dei difensori, tutela della riservatezza e raccolta dei datiAntiriciclaggioIter parlamentare degli originari artt. 7-11 D.L. 12 settembre 2014, n. 132: l'esito dell'art. 7 in tema di conciliazione avente per oggetto diritti del prestatore di lavoro, in Luigi Levita, La riforma del processo civile. Commento organico al D.L. 12 settembre 2014, n. 132, Nuova Giuridica, 2015, pp. 52-63.


- F. Bisanti, Quale “fuori-pista”? Insidie e pericoli per lo sciatore e i gestori, nella Rivista professione Montagna, anno XVIII, n. 130 gennaio/febbraio 2015, ed. ComunicazioniStampa s.r.l., Cavallasca, pp. 42-26.


F. Bisanti, Riflessioni in tema di illecito sportivo e rilevanza penale della condotta alla luce del caso Neymar, in Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, III/2014, pp. 13-23.


- F. Bisanti, Contratto con effetti protettivi nei confronti del terzo: gita scolastica sugli sci, nota a Trib. Bari 24.10.2013, in (a cura del prof. Cendon), 2014.


- F. Bisanti, Il diritto al tempo libero, nota a Cass. civ. 21725/12, in (a cura del prof. Cendon), 2014.


- F. Bisanti, L'arresto della Corte di Cassazione nei confronti della polizia giudiziaria: il divieto di condurre indagini informali, in Diritto e giurisprudenza commentata, Dike Giuridica, Roma, V/2014, pp. 80-91.


- F. Bisanti, Il controllo dei corpi di polizia sugli sport dell’aria in Izzo-Morandi (a cura di), La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo – L’aria, Giappichelli Editore, Torino, 2014.


- F.Bisanti, La responsabilità civile del gestore di un impianto sportivo nella recente giurisprudenza: orientamenti consolidati e prospettive future, in Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, I/2014, pp. 13-30.


- F. Bisanti, La lezione di sci: esiste ancora il «diritto di imparare»?L’infortunio subito da un allievo durante una lezione di sci: alla ricerca di una fonte di responsabilità della scuola di sci”, in Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, III/2013, pp. 103-124. 


- F. Bisanti, La responsabilità dell’organizzatore e del concessionario del tracciato in occasione di competizioni sciistiche agonistiche: una nuova visione, in Rivista italiana di diritto del turismo, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano, IX/2013, pp. 380-389.


- F. Bisanti, Pericoli lungo le piste da sci e responsabilità del gestore dell’area sciabile: il regime probatorio dell’imputazione di responsabilità, in Rivista di diritto sportivo, Coni, Roma, II/2013, pp. 405-416.


- F. Bisanti, Le regole di priorità nella trattazione dei processi in Conz-Garofano-Levita (cura di) Femminicidio, Dike Giuridica, Roma, 2013.


- F. Bisanti, Le regole in tema di sicurezza nello sci: una visione d’insieme; Oltre le palinature: la responsabilità civile nel fuoripista; Lo sci agonistico in Fornasari-Izzo-Lenti-Morandi (a cura di), La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo – La Montagna, Giappichelli Editore, Torino, 2013. 



Maria Isabella Pisanu

maria isabella foto 



Maria Isabella Pisanu


Ph.D. in Law and Economics; Research fellow in Maritime Law; Department of Economics and Business Science, University of Sassari

Address for corrispondence: Via Muroni  25 – 07100 Sassari – Italy

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Current Positions

2011-present – Research fellow in Maritime Law, University of Sassari, Department of Economics and Business Science. Research project title: “The New Tourism Law”. Project Coordinator: Prof. Francesco Morandi.


2009-present – Lawyer in Sassari.


2011-present – Editorial board member of “Rivista italiana di diritto del turismo”, published by Franco Angeli.




J.D., University of Sassari (5 March 2004), final grade: 110/110, summa cum laude. Thesis in Banking Law. Thesis title: “Banking foundations: Analysis and Perspectives”. Advisor: Prof. Antonio Serra.


Ph.D. in Law and Economics, University of Sassari (28 February 2008).



Research Experience

2008-2010 – Research fellow in Commercial Law, University of Sassari, Faculty of Law. Research project title: “Innovation in Payment Systems and e-commerce”. Project Coordinator: Prof. Antonio Serra.



Teaching Experience

2004-2013 – Integrative courses for the teachings of Commercial Law and Banking Law.



Research Interests

Tourism Law, Maritime Law, Commercial Law, Company Law, Banking Law.




- M.I.A. Pisanu, Orientamenti dei giudici del Registro delle Imprese in materia di società di persone, in Rivista Giuridica Sarda, 3, 2005, 811 ss.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, Note in tema di contratto di lavoro subordinato e contratto associativo, in Rivista Giuridica Sarda, 2, 2007, 511 ss.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, Brevi note in tema di recesso da cooperativa edilizia, in Rivista Giuridica Sarda, 3, 2009, 599 ss.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, Brevi considerazioni a margine della figura del direttore generale di s.p.a, in Rivista di diritto dell'impresa, 1, 2012, 151 ss.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, IMEL e moneta elettronica, ESI, Napoli, 2012.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, Aggiornamenti all’indomani  del «Decreto del Fare», Addenda al “Decreto del Fare”, in F. Morandi (diretto da),  I contratti del trasporto, Bologna, 2013.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, Il contratto di lavoro a tempo determinato nel settore del trasporto aereo e dei servizi aeroportuali, in I contratti del trasporto, Collana Dottrina, Casi, sistemi, diretto da F. Morandi, t. 1, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2013, 331 ss.

- M.I.A. Pisanu, Il lavoro marittimo tra specialità e regole di diritto comune del lavoro, in I contratti del trasporto, Collana Dottrina, Casi, sistemi, diretto da F. Morandi, t. 1, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2013, 857 ss.

Stefania Rossi









Stefania Rossi

PhD in Criminal Law; Postdoctoral Research Fellow; Faculty of Law, University of Trento 


Address for Correspondence: Via Verdi 53 - 38122 Trento - Italy

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Ph.D in Comparative and European Legal Studies (curriculum: Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Law) at the Faculty of Law, University of Trento – Italy (2010); title of thesis: “Le qualifiche soggettive nei reati contro la Pubblica Amministrazione: Profili dogmatici e analisi casistica”. Supervisor: Prof. Gabriele Fornasari.

Graduated in Law at the University of Trento – Italy (2004); title of the thesis: “Dolo ed errore nei reati a condotta neutra”. Supervisor: Prof. Sergio Bonini.



Post-Doc. Research Fellow, Faculty of Law, University of Trento

Professor on contract in Criminal Law, University of Trento - University of Verona

Teaching Assistant in Criminal Law, University of Trento

Lecturer in Criminal Law, University of Trento 

Since 2007 Lawyer



Member of Editorial Board of RIVISTA DI DIRITTO SPORTIVO 

Member of Research Group «Diritto degli sport del turismo», Faculty of Law, University of Trento <>


Research Interests

Criminal Law; Comparative Criminal Law; Crimes against Public Administration; Law of tourism sports; Maritime Law.


 Research Project Awards

«Prevenzione dei sinistri in area valanghiva: attività sportive, aspetti normativo-regolamentari e gestione del rischio», funded by Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Trento e Rovereto-Faculty of Law, University of Trento (2016-2018).


International Research Experiences

(2009) Center for the Administration of Justice – Florida International University, Miami (U.S.A.). Supervisor: Prof. Luis Salas.


Teaching Activities

(present) Criminal Law course, T.P.A.L.L., University of Trento - University of Verona.

Lab on “Mountain Sports Law” (Izzo-Rossi), Faculty of Law, University of Trento, 2010/2011-2013/2014.

Exercises on “Le qualifiche soggettive nei reati contro la Pubblica Amministrazione” (Advanced Criminal Law course), Faculty of Law, University of Trento, 2008/2009-2012/2013.

(present) Exercises on “I reati di favoreggiamento personale e reale” (Advanced Criminal Law course), Faculty of Law, University of Trento.

(present) Exercises on “Art. 41 bis ord. pen.” (Penitentiary Law course), Faculty of Law, University of Trento.

Since 2006 Teaching Assistant in the courses of Criminal Law and Advanced Criminal Law (course leader: Prof. Gabriele Fornasari), Faculty of Law, University of Trento.


Main Scientific Publications



- S. Rossi, "Esercizio abusivo della professione di maestro di sci: tra esigenze di tutela e libertà di circolazione intra comunitaria", in RIVISTA DI DIRITTO SPORTIVO, 2017.

- S. Rossi, "Sulla responsabilità penale del gestore di area sciabile" (nota a Cass. pen., sezione IV penale; sentenza 30 settembre – 9 novembre 2015, n. 44796 e Cass. pen., sezione feriale penale; sentenza 13 agosto – 15 settembre 2015, n. 37267), in DANNO E RESPONSABILITÀ, 2/2016, p. 138-144.

- S. Rossi, "Ancora sulla posizione di garanzia del gestore di aree sciabili. Due recenti sentenze e alcune notazioni critiche" (Nota a Cass. pen., sezione IV penale; sentenza 30 settembre – 9 novembre 2015, n. 44796 e Cass. pen., sezione feriale penale; sentenza 13 agosto – 15 settembre 2015, n. 37267), in RIVISTA DI DIRITTO SPORTIVO, II/2015, p. 235-245.

- S. Rossi, "Fenomenologia giuridica di un disastro: il naufragio della "Costa Concordia" nella prospettiva del penalista (Legal phenomenology of a disaster: the "Costa Concordia" shipwreck from the criminalistic point of view)", in RIVISTA ITALIANA DI DIRITTO DEL TURISMO, 13/2015, p. 5-21.

- S. Rossi, "Il naufragio della Costa Concordia: norme incriminatrici e categorie dogmatiche alla prova dei fatti (una prima lettura)", in DIRITTO PENALE CONTEMPORANEO, 9 novembre 2015, p. 1-30 - URL:

- S. Rossi, in AA.VV., L’Acqua, (volume III del Trattato, La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo, diretto da Fornasari-Izzo-Lenti-Morandi), Giappichelli, Torino, 2015.

- S. Rossi, in AA.VV., L’Aria, (volume II del Trattato, La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo, diretto da Fornasari-Izzo-Lenti-Morandi), Giappichelli, Torino, 2014.

- S. Rossi, “Distruzione di materie prime o di prodotti agricoli o industriali ovvero di mezzi di produzione (art. 499 c.p.)”, in Fornasari-Mazzacuva (a cura di), Trattato di diritto penale, parte speciale (delitti contro l’economia pubblica, l’industria e il commercio), Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2015. 

- S. Rossi, “Diffusione di una malattia delle piante o degli animali (art. 500 c.p.)”, in Fornasari-Mazzacuva (a cura di), Trattato di diritto penale, parte speciale (delitti contro l’economia pubblica, l’industria e il commercio), Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2015.

- S. Rossi, “Le fattispecie di aggiotaggio codicistiche ed extra codicistiche (art. 501 c.p.; art. 2637 c.c.; art.185 t.u.f.; art. 187-ter t.u.f.)”, in Fornasari-Mazzacuva (a cura di), Trattato di diritto penale, parte speciale (delitti contro l’economia pubblica, l’industria e il commercio), Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2015.

- S. Rossi, “Manovre speculative su merci (art. 501-bis c.p.)”, in Fornasari-Mazzacuva (a cura di), Trattato di diritto penale, parte speciale (delitti contro l’economia pubblica, l’industria e il commercio), Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2015.

- S. Rossi, “Concussione e Induzione indebita: vecchie e nuove previsioni incriminatrici a confronto”. Nota a: Cassazione Penale, sez. VI, 25/02/2013 (dep. 21.03.2013), n. 13047, in Rivista Trimestrale di Diritto Penale dell’Economia, III/2013.

- S. Rossi, “Gli altri sport legati alla fruizione turistica della montagna: la responsabilità penale”, in La Montagna (volume I del Trattato, La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo, diretto da Fornasari-Izzo-Lenti-Morandi), Giappichelli, Torino, 2013, p. 506-509. 

- S. Rossi, “La responsabilità penale nell’alpinismo e nell’escursionismo in montagna”, in La Montagna (volume I del Trattato, La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo, diretto da Fornasari-Izzo-Lenti-Morandi), Giappichelli, Torino, 2013, p. 466-481. 

- S. Rossi, “Sci e responsabilità penale”, in La Montagna (volume I del Trattato, La responsabilità civile e penale negli sport del turismo, diretto da Fornasari-Izzo-Lenti-Morandi), Giappichelli, Torino, 2013, p. 313-376. 

- S. Rossi, “Le posizioni di garanzia nell’esercizio degli sport di montagna. Alla ricerca di nuovi equilibri in tema di obblighi precauzionali e gestione del rischio”, in DIRITTO PENALE CONTEMPORANEO, 7 gennaio 2013, p. 1-24 - URL:

- S. Rossi, “Il principio di ragionevolezza, in relazione al quadro sanzionatorio, nel sindacato di legittimità costituzionale: rinnovati spunti in chiave comparatistica”. Nota a: Corte Costituzionale, 23.03.2012 (ud. 19.03.2012), in Indice Penale, n. 2/2012, p. 483-508. 

- S. Rossi, "Esenzione dal ticket sanitario con falsa autocertificazione: novità e perplessità in tema di indebita percezione ex art. 316 ter c.p.". Nota a: Cassazione Penale, Sezioni Unite, n. 7537 ud. 16/12/2010 - deposito del 25/02/2011, in Rivista Trimestrale di Diritto Penale dell’Economia, n. I-II/2011, p. 294 – 316.

- S. Rossi, “Commento agli artt. 650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661 c.p.”,in Cadoppi-Canestrari-Veneziani (a cura di), Codice penale commentato con dottrina e giurisprudenza - Collana Tribuna Major, La Tribuna, Piacenza, 2011, p. 2783 – 2814.

- S. Rossi, “Incaricato di pubblico servizio e 'concezione oggettiva': permangono le incertezze giurisprudenziali”. Nota a: Cassazione Penale, sezione VI, 18/06/2007 (c.c. 19/04/2007), n. 23753, in Diritto Penale e Processo, (5/2008), p. 613 – 620.